UMD Researchers Aim to Shed Light on How Tumor Cells Metastasize
Fischell Department of Bioengineering’s Giuliano Scarcelli Awarded $1 Million NIH Research Grant
FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE June 28, 2016
301 405 2057
COLLEGE PARK, Md. (June 28, 2016) – The University of Maryland Fischell Department of Bioengineering (BIOE) announced today that assistant professor Giuliano Scarcelli has been awarded a three-year, $1 million grant from the National Institutes of Health to support applications of a novel optical microscopy technique for the study of cancer metastasis.
"With support from the Innovative Molecular Analysis Technologies program of the National Cancer Institute of the NIH, members of my Optics Biotech Lab and I are working to use a technique known as Brillouin optical microscopy to investigate how and why tumor cells metastasize to other parts of the body," Scarcelli said.
This technique involves a process known as Brillouin light scattering, during which light interacts with density fluctuations in a medium, thereby allowing Scarcelli and his team to measure how mechanical properties of a cell change over time in their 3-D microenvironments. These spontaneous fluctuations are driven by collective acoustic vibrational modes, and thus depend on the local mechanical properties within a sample. In this way, Brillouin microscopy yields invaluable information on the viscoelastic characteristics of cells—and does so at a microscopy resolution no other non-contact technique can match.
"Gold-standard techniques require contact, therefore, they are inherently limited to providing global averages of cell properties," Scarcelli said, "With Brillouin microscopy, we can characterize the mechanical properties within a cell and we can do that in experimental situations where there is no physical access to the cell, such as within 3-D environments that mimic in vivo conditions."
Scientists have long recognized that the mechanical interplay between a cell and its surrounding microenvironment influences tumor progression, malignancy transformation, and metastasis. In order for cancer to progress from one area of the body to another, a tumor cell leaves the original cancer site through a complex process known as the metastatic cascade before a new tumor forms at a secondary organ site.
"During the metastatic cascade, tumor cells face very difficult mechanical challenges; for example, they may squeeze through constrictions smaller than the cell's size," Scarcelli said. "Yet, some cells are able to overcome these challenges. Hopefully, we’ll now be able to see what type of mechanical machinery metastatic cells have to put in place to do this."
Understanding how a tumor cell accomplishes the steps of the metastatic cascade could help bioengineers develop improved diagnostic tools or improved drug screening platforms.
Scarcelli specializes in biophotonics, with strong emphasis on optical sciences and technology development. Prior to joining the department in 2014, he served as an instructor with the Harvard Medical School and Wellman Center for Photomedicine at Massachusetts General Hospital. He is the inventor in four patents, all licensed to industry, and his work with Brillouin microscopy earned him the Tosteson Postdoctoral Fellowship Award, an NIH K25 Career Development Award, and a Young Investigator Award from the Human Frontier Science Program.
This research is supported by the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health under Award Number R33CA204582. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.
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